Zubaidah, S. Problem-based learning: literature review. Singapore NursingJournal. 2005; 32(4): 50–55.
Maldonado, R. The use of multimedia clinical case scenario software in a problem-based learning course: impact on faculty workload and student learning outcomes. The Journal of Physician Assistant Education. 2011; 22(3): 51–55.
Gould, K, Sadera, W, McNary, S. Comparing changes in content knowledge between online problem-based learning and traditional instruction in undergraduate health professional students. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 2015; 11(1): 74–86.
Musal, B, Keskin, O, Tuncel, P. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mezuniyet Öncesi Tıp Eğitiminde e-PDÖ Uygulaması: İki Yıllık Deneyim. Türkiye Klinikleri Tıp Eğitimi Özel Sayısı, 2016; 1(3): 17–24.
Şendağ, S, Odabaşı, F. Effects of an online problem-based learning course on content knowledge acquisition and critical thinking skills. Computers and Education. 2009; 53:132–141.
Turan, S, Demirel, Ö. Probleme Dayalı Öğrenmeye İlişkin Tutum Ölçeği Geçerlik and Güvenirlik Çalışması. Eğitim and Bilim. 2010; 34(152). http://egitimvebilim.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/5/3
Yao, P, OuYang, J, Liu, C, Wang, S, Wang, X, Sun, S. Improving burn surgery education for medical students in China. Burns. 2020; 46(3): 647–651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2019.09.012
Demirören, M, Demirel, M. Ankara Tıp Eğitimi Dünyası. 2006; 23:33–40.
Turan, S, Demirel, Ö. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Öğrencilerinin Probleme Dayalı Öğrenmeye Yönelik Tutumları and Görüşleri. Eğitim and Bilim. 2011; 36(162). http://egitimvebilim.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/351
Spinello, EF, Fischbach, R. Using a web-based simulation as a problem-based learning experience: Perceived and actual performance of Undergraduate Public Health students. Public Health Reports. 2008; 123(Suppl 2): 78–84.
Lawal, O, Ramlaul, A, Murphy, F. Problem-based learning in radiography education: a narrative review. Radiography. 2020; 27(2): 727–732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2020.11.001
Prensky, MH Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom. Innovate: Journal of Online Education. 2009; 5(3), Article 1. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/innovate/vol5/iss3/1
Firstenberg, MS, Stawicki, SP. Medical Education at the Crossroads – Things Are Not How They Used to Be, Things Are Not as They Seem. In Medical Education for the 21st Century. (Ed: MS Firstenberg): IntechOpen. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.104692
Budakoğlu İ., Coşkun, Ö., Özeke V. Probleme Dayalı Öğrenme Süreci: Mevcut Durum, Sorunlar ve Teknoloji Destekli Çözüm Önerileri [Problem Based Learning: Present Situation, Issues and Technology Supported Solution Recommendations]. Kuramsal Eğitimbilim Dergisi, 2018; 11(4), 894–921. https://doi.org/10.30831/akukeg.396968
Binks, AP, LeClair, RJ, Willey, JM. et al. Changing Medical Education, overnight: the curricular response to COVID-19 of Nine Medical Schools. Teach Learn Med. 2021; 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2021.1891543
Simonson, M, Smaldino, S, Zvacek, SM Teaching and learning at a distance: foundations of distance education. 2019. Charlotte, North Carolina: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
King, S, Greidanus, E, Carbonaro, M, Drummond, J, Boechler, P, Kahlke, R. Synchronous problem-based e-Learning (ePBL) in Interprofessional Health Science Education. J Interac Online Learn. 2010; 9(2):133–50.
Jawaid M, Aly SM. E-learning modalities in the current era of medical education in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014; 30(5): 1156–1158.
Azer, SA Twelve tips for creating trigger images for problem-based learning cases. MedicalTeacher. 2007; 29(2–3): 93–97.
Vasiliou, C, Ioannou, A, Arh, T, Zaphiris P, Klobučar, T. Technology-enhanced problem-based learning. Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Organizational Science Development. 2013, April: Portorož, Slovenia.
Ellaway, RH, Poulton, T, Jivram, T. Decision PBL: A 4-year retrospective case study of the use of virtual patients in problem-based learning, Medical Teacher. 2015; 37(10): 926–934. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.970627
Oyewole, BK, Animasahun, VJ, Chapman, HJ. A survey on the effectiveness of WhatsApp for teaching doctors preparing for a licensing exam. PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(4): e0231148. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231148
Ploetzner, R, Berney, S, Bétrancourt, M. A review of learning demands in instructional animations: the educational effectiveness of animations unfolds if the features of change need to be learned. J Comput Assist Learn. 2020;36:838–860. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12476
Foo, CC, Cheung, B, Chu, KM. A comparative study regarding distance learning and the conventional face-to-face approach conducted a problem-based learning tutorial during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Med Educa. 2021; 21(1): 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02575-1
Armon, S, Benyamini, Y, Grisaru-Granovsky, S, Avitan, T. Online obstetrics, and Gynecology Medical Student Clerkship during the Covid-19 pandemic: a pilot study. Med Sci Educ. 2021; 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01181-y
Coiado, OC, Yodh, J, Galvez, R, Ahmad, K. How COVID-19 transformed problem-based learning at Carle Illinois College of Medicine. Medical Science Educator. 2020; 30(4): 1353–1354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01063-3
Kronenfeld, JP, Ryon, EL, Kronenfeld, DS, et al. Medical Student Education during COVID-19: Electronic Education does not decrease examination scores. Am Surg. 2020; 3134820983194. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003134820983194
Shavelson, RJ, Phillips, DC, Towne, L, Feuer, MJ. On the Science of Education Design Studies. Educational Researcher. 2003; 32(1): 25–28.
Dolmans, DH, Tigelaar, D. Building bridges between theory and practice in medical education using a design-based research approach: AMEE Guide No. 60. Med Teach. (2012); 34(1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2011.595437
Gürpınar, E, Alimoğlu, MK, Güzeller, C. Probleme Dayalı Öğrenimin Etkinliğinin Değerlendirilmesi için öğrenci and öğretim elemanlarına yönelik bir ölçek çalışması. Topluma Dayalı Tıp Eğitimi and Eğitim Araştırmaları Sempozyumu Bildiri Özetleri Kitabı. 2011, May: Antalya, Turkiye.
Kemahlı, S, Alper, A. Probleme dayalı öğrenmeye yönelik tutum ölçeği. Eğitim Bilimleri Theory and Uygulama. 2006; 5(10):191–206.
Harasym, PH, Tsai, TC, Hemmati, P. Current trends in developing medical students’ critical thinking abilities. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. 2008; 24(7): 341–355.
Turhan, K, Unsal, S, Kalaycı, N, Kayıkcı, V, Uzun, E. Computer Supported Clinically Oriented Reasoning Exam Management System with Client/Server Architecture: COREBuilder. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia and Information & Communication Technologies in Education, & In Mendez-Vilas, A. 2006, November: Seville, Spain.
Nicklen, P, Keating, JL, Maloney, S. Exploring student preconceptions of readiness for remote-online case-based learning: a case study. JMIR Med Educ. 2016;2(1):e5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/mededu.5348
Oderinu, OH, Adegbulugbe, IC, Orenuga, OO, Butali, A. Comparison of students’ perception of problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods in a Nigerian dental school. European Journal of Dental Education. 2020; 24(2): 207–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12486
Norman, E, Tjomsland, HE, Huegel, D. The Distance between us: using Construal Level Theory to Understand Interpersonal Distance in a Digital Age [Hypothesis and theory]. Frontiers in Digital Humanities. 2016; 3(5). https://doi.org/10.3389/fdigh.2016.00005
Budakoğlu, İ., Özeke, V., Coşkun, Ö. Medical undergraduates’ CORE performance scores and opinions towards e-PBL. The 7th European Conference on Education (ECE2019), July 19th-21th, 2019, London, UK.
Gavgani, VZ, Hazrati, H, Ghojazadeh, M. The efficacy of Digital Case Scenario Versus Paper Case scenario on clinical reasoning in Problem-Based learning: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. Research and Development in Medical Education. 2015; 4(1): 17–22.
Persson, AC, Fyrenius, A, Bergdahl, B. Perspectives on using multimedia scenarios in a PBL medical curriculum. MedicalTeacher. 2010; 32(9): 766–772.
Kim, KJ, Kee, C. Evaluation of an e-PBL model to promote individual reasoning. MedicalTeacher. 2013; 35:978–983.
Balslev, T, De Grave, WS, Muijtjens, AMM, Scherpbier, AJJA. Comparison of text and video cases in a postgraduate problem-based learning format. Medical Education. 2005; 39:1086–1092.
Kim, JH, Shin, JS. Effects of an online problem-based learning program on sexual health care competencies among oncology nurses: a pilot study. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 2014; 45(9): 393–401.
Ghanchi, NK, Khan, S, Afridi, A., et al. Video or paper for delivery of problem-based learning cases? Medical Education. 2013; 47:1131.
Schmidt, HG, Rotgans, JI, Yew, EH. The process of problem-based learning: what works and why. Medical Education. 2011; 45(8): 792–806.
Back DA, Haberstroh N, Antolic A, Sostmann K, Schmidmaier G, Hoff E. Blended learning approach improves teaching in a problem-based learning environment in orthopedics – a pilot study. BMC Med Educa. 2014; 27:14–17.
Savin-Baden, M. The challenge of using problem-based learning online, 3–13. Problem-based Learning Online. 2006: Eds: Savin-Baden, M. & Wilkie, K. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill.
van der Vleuten, CPM, Schuwirth, LWT. Assessment in the context of problem-based learning. Adv in Health Sci Educ. 2019; 24:903–914. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-019-09909-1
Tudor Car L, Kyaw BM, Dunleavy G, et al. Digital Problem-Based learning in Health Professions: systematic review and Meta-analysis by the Digital Health Education collaboration. J Med Internet Res. 2019; 21(2):e12945. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/12945